Bash Completion

Some of these steps were taken from here:

I used MacPorts to install bash-completion:

sudo port install bash-completion

Save the following

to /opt/local/etc/bash_completion.d/

Add the following to .bash_profile or .profile as appropriate.

# for bash-completion
if [ -f /opt/local/etc/bash_completion ]; then
    . /opt/local/etc/bash_completion
source /opt/local/etc/bash_completion.d/
source /opt/local/etc/bash_completion.d/

Now restart your Terminal.

MySQL Replication

The steps I followed to get a MySQL server and one MySQL slave setup were taken from here:

Live backups of MySQL using Replication

Here’s how to setup a replication slave to ensure reliable backups without having to shutdown the server. Typically, replication is a system configuration whereby the MySQL server, known in this context as a master server, houses the data and handles client requests, while another MySQL server (a slave server) contains a complete copy of the data and duplicates all SQL statements in which data is changed on the master server right after it happens. There are several uses for replication (e.g. load balancing), but the concern of this article has to do with using replication for data backups.  You can set up a separate server to be a slae and then once a day turn replication off to make a clean backup.  When you’re done, replication can be restarted and the slave will automatically query the master for the changes to the data that it missed while it was offline. Replication is an excellent feature and it’s part of MySQL.

The Replication Process

Before explaining how to setup replication, let’s quickly explain the steps that MySQL goes through to maintain a replicated server. The process is different depending on the version of MySQL. For purposes of this post, the process will be for version 4.0 or higher, since most systems now are using later versions.

When replication is running, basically, as SQL statements are executed on the master server, MySQL records them in a binary log (bin.log) along with a log position identification number.  The slave server in turn, through an IO thread, regularly and very often reads the mater’s binary log for any changes. If it finds a change, it copies the new statements to its relay log (relay.log). It then records the new position identification number in a file ( on the slave server. The slave then goes back to checking the master binary log, using the same IO thread. When the slave server detects a change to its relay log, through an SQL thread the slave executes the new SQL statement recorded in the relay log. As a safeguard, the slave also queries the master server through the SQL thread to compare its data with the master’s data. If the comparison shows inconsistency, the replication process is stopped and an error message is recorded in the slave’s error log (error.log). If the results of the query match, the new log position identification number is recorded in a file on the slave ( and the slave waits for another change to the relay log file.

This process isn’t a significant drain on the master server and occurs quickly.  Also, it’s surprisingly easy to set up. It only requires a few lines of options to be added to the configuration file (my.cnf) on the master and slave servers.  If you’re dealing with a new server, you’ll need to copy the databases on the master server to the slave to get it caught up. Then it’s merely a matter of starting the slave for it to begin replication.

The Replication User

There are only a few steps to setting up replication.  The first set is to setup a user account to use only for replication. It’s best not to use an existing account for security reasons. To do this, enter a SQL statement like the following on the master server, logged in as root or a user that has GRANT OPTION privileges:

GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO ‘replicant_user’@’slave_host’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘strong_password’;

flush privileges;

In this SQL statement, the user account replicant_user is granted only what’s needed for replication. The user name can be almost anything. The host name (or IP address) is given in quotes. You should enter this same statement on the slave server with the same user name and password, but the master’s hose name or IP address. This way, if the master fails and will be down for a while, you could redirect users to the slave with DNS or by some other method. When the master is back up, you can then use replication to get it up to date by temporarily making it a slave to the former slave server. Incidentally, if you upgraded MySQL to version 4.0 recently, but didn’t upgrade your mysql database, the GRANT statement above won’t work because these privileges didn’t exist in the earlier versions.

Configuring the Servers

Once the replication user is set up on both servers, we will need to add some lines to the MySQL configuration file on the master and on the slave server.  Depending on the type of OS, the file will probably be called my.cnf or my.ini. Using a text editor, add the following lines to the configuration file, under the [mysqld] section.

server-id = 1

log-bin = /var/log/mysql/bin.log

The server ID is an arbitrary number to identify the master server.  Almost any whole number is fine. A different one should be assigned to the slave server to keep them straight.  The second line instructs MySQL to perform binary logging to the path and file given. Be sure the directory and the file are owned by the mysql user and at least has permission to write to the directory. Also, for the file name use the suffix of “.log” as show here. It will be replaced automatically with an index number (e.g. “.000001”) as new log files are created when the server is restarted or the logs are flushed.

For the slave server, we will need to add a few more lines to the configuration file.  We’ll have to provide information on connecting to the master server, as well as more log file options. We would add the lines similar to the following to the slave’s configuration file:

server-id = 2

master-host =
master-port = 3306
master-user = replicant
master-password = my_pwd

log-bin = /var/log/mysql/bin.log
log-bin-index = /var/log/mysql/log-bin.index
log-error = /var/log/mysql/error.log

relay-log = /var/log/mysql/relay.log
relay-log-info-file = /var/log/mysql/
relay-log-index = /var/log/mysql/relay-log.index

This may seem like a lot, but it’s pretty straightforward.  The first line is the identification number for the slave server. If you set up more than one slave server, give them each a different number.  The next set of lines provides information on the master server: the host name as shown here, or the IP address of the master may be given. Next, the port to use is given. The next two lines provide the user name and password for logging into the master slave.

The last two stanzas above set up logging. The second to last stanza starts binary logging as we did on the master server, but this time on the slave.  This is the log that can be used to allow the master and the slave to reverse roles, as mention earlier. The binary log index file (log-bin.index) is for recording the name of the current binary log file to use.  As the server is restarted or logs are flushed, the current log file changes and its name is recorded here. The log-error option establishes an error log. If you don’t already have this setup, you should, since it’s where any problems with replication will be recorded. The last stanza establishes the relay log and related files mentioned earlier. The relay log makes a copy of each entry in the master server’s binary log for performance sake, the relay-log-info-file option names the files where the slave’s position in the master’s binary log will be noted, and the relay log index file is for keeping track of the name of the current relay log file to use for replication

Copying Databases and Starting Replication

If you’re setting up a new master server that doesn’t contain data, then there’s nothing left to do but restart the slave server.  However, if you’re setting up replication with an existing server that already has data on it, you will need to make an initial backup of the databases and copy it to the slave server.  There are many methods to do this; for our examples, we’ll use the utility mysqldump to make a backup while the server is running.  However, there’s still the problem with attaining consistency of data on an active server. Considering the fact that once you set up replication you may never have to shut down your server for backups again, it might be worth while to at least lock the users out this one last time to get a clean, consistent backup. To run the master server so that only root has access, we can reset the variable max_connections like so:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘max_connections’;

SET GLOBAL max_connections = 0;

The first SQL statement isn’t necessary, but we may want to know the initial value of the max_connections variable so that we can change it back when the backup is finished.  Although setting the variable to  a value of 0 suggests that no connections are allowed, one connection is actually reserver for the root user.  Of course, this will only prevent any new connections. To see if there are any connections still running, enter


To terminate any active processes, you can use the KILL command. With exclusive access to the server, using mysqldump is usually very quick.  We would enter the following from the command line on the master server:

mysqldump -u root -p –extended-insert –all-databases –master-data > /tmp/backup.sql

This will create a text file containing SQL statements to create all of the databases and tables with data.  The –extended-insert option will create multiple-row INSERT statements and thereby allow the backup to run faster, for the least amount of down time.  The –master-data option above locks all of the tables during the dump  to prevent data from being change, but allows users to continue reading the tables. With exclusive access, this feature isn’t necessary. However, this option also adds a few lines like the following to the end of the dump file:

-- Position to start replication from


When the dump file is executed on the slave server, these last lines will record the name of the master’s binarly log file and the position in the log at the time of the backup, while the tables were locked. When replication is started, it will go to this log file and execute any SQL statements recorded starting from the position given. This is meant to ensure that any data changed while setting up the slave server isn’t missed. To execute the dump file to set up the databases and data on the slave server, copy the dump file to the slave, make sure MySQL is running, then enter something like the following:

mysql -u root -p < /tmp/backup.sql

This will execute all of the SQL statements in the dump file, which will include the CREATE and INSERT statements. Once the backed-up databases are loaded onto the slave server, execute the following SQL statement while logged in as root on the slave:


After this statement is run, the slave will connect to the master and get the changes it missed since the backup.  From there, it will stay current by continuously checking the binary log as outlined before. You can view the status of the slave by running the following SQL statement while logged in as root on the slave:


If it’s not working check the error log to find out what is not working.

set built in command

I recently ran into a situation where the vi editing style for command line was set in /etc/profile.  Being used to what I thought was the “standard” line movements for Bash, I discovered that it was actually the standard line movements for emacs.

The set -o only takes on of 2 command line editing interfaces, emacs or vi. So to “undo” the vi editing style just add a set -o emacs in your .bash_profile.